Since 2018, Ethiopia has been in a highly unstable political transition, which began with Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed taking power at the head of a de facto Amhara-Oromo coalition. Political and ethnic rivalries in the country exploded into violence in November 2020, with forces commanded by the formerly dominant Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) attacking federal military bases in Mekelle, stating it was facing imminent federal military intervention following a constitutional dispute. The attack was met with a full-scale military operation by Ethiopia’s and Eritrea’s armed forces and their Amhara regional allies. Ever since, the country has been trapped in a large-scale war, concomitant with a severe humanitarian crisis, particularly inside a besieged Tigray. Then in November 2022, the African Union oversaw an unexpected breakthrough, facilitating a cease-fire agreement. We asked William Davison, Senior Analyst for Ethiopia at International Crisis Group, to discuss the conflict and what the Pretoria deal means for Unresolved Crises.