Developing countries liberalized trade dramatically in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This was a period in which China, India, and other previously closed economies opened up to world trade. Multilateral institutions supported and encouraged these reform efforts, but the key actors were the officials in finance ministries and central banks in the countries that liberalized. Most of the reductions in trade barriers were made unilaterally, often in the midst of an economic crisis, not in the context of trade agreements with other countries.
Global Economy. La maggior parte delle economie in via di sviluppo ha ridotto le tariffe su base volontaria, non a causa di accordi commerciali (Douglas A. Irwin, Peterson Institute for International Economics)