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Il dialogo politico – The political dialogue

Siamo in un tempo di monologhi confusi. Alcuni capiscono che nulla potrà più essere come prima mentre in tanti continuano a usare parole novecentesche e a non rendersi conto che, negli ultimi tre decenni, tutto è cambiato. Questo cambiamento, che preferiamo definire trasformazione, ci ha consegnato un mondo diviso e disuguale, non dialogante.

Abbiamo scritto che il dialogo è un processo complesso. Le due fasi del dialogo, dialettica/di mediazione e dialogale, sono inseparabili.

Nel dialogo, infatti, la dialettica è inevitabile. Se si incontrano mondi diversi, si apre il confronto tra differenze. E quel confronto è conflittuale, anima delle società democratiche e da preservare, nel senso che chiama ogni parte a porre le proprie istanze in chiave non solamente competitiva. Il conflitto che nasce dal confronto è sano se viene finalizzato a costruire qualcosa di nuovo e di imprevisto, se aiuta ogni parte a relativizzarsi per de-radicalizzarsi.

Ogni situazione umana evolve se c’è mediazione tra gli inevitabili interessi di parte. La stessa situazione involve, e de-genera, se la mediazione è ridotta a compromesso, se la mediazione non è finalizzata a costruire nuove vie ma a percorrere quelle antiche con un sovraccarico di competizione e con la necessità di difendersi sempre di più, di immunizzarsi, da nemici reali o potenziali. In tale contesto, la radicalizzazione diventa insuperabile, “vince” (peraltro in maniera molto precaria) chi si immunizza di più. Attenzione, però, perché l’eccesso d’immunizzazione porta all’asfissia.

Questa asfissia è l’assenza di politica. Se non esiste politica nei regimi autoritari e totalitari, è responsabilità delle democrazie liberali investire sul dialogo come fatto politico, passando attraverso una sana auto-critica. Se guardiamo realisticamente alle nostre democrazie, la mediazione è stata dimenticata. Questo, dal punto di vista della riflessione complessa, è un primo problema con il quale confrontarsi. Abbiamo negato il conflitto sociale cercando compromessi che ci hanno portato in una strada chiusa. Così le democrazie non portano dentro di sé il respiro della storia ma sono costrette a difendersi e ad alzare muri: la doppia dinamica (non governata politicamente) delle crescenti disuguaglianze interne e della potenza dei flussi globali rischia di essere fatale.

Continuiamo a riflettere sul dialogo politico …

English version

We are in a time of confused monologues. Some understand that nothing will ever be the same again while many continue to use twentieth-century words and not realize that, in the last three decades, everything has changed. This change, which we prefer to define as transformation, has given us a divided and unequal world, not in dialogue.

We wrote that dialogue is a complex process. The two phases of dialogue, dialectic/mediation and dialogal, are inseparable.

In fact, in dialogue, the dialectic is inevitable. If different worlds meet, the confrontation between differences opens up. And that confrontation is conflictual, the soul of democratic societies and to be preserved, in the sense that it calls on each party to place its own requests in a key not only competitive. The conflict that arises from confrontation is healthy if it is aimed at building something new and unexpected, if it helps each party to relativize in order to de-radicalize.

Every human situation evolves if there is mediation between the inevitable partisan interests. The same situation involves, and de-generates, if the mediation is reduced to a compromise, if the mediation is not aimed at building new paths but at following the old ones with an overload of competition and with the need to defend oneself more and more, to immunize oneself from real or potential enemies. In this context, radicalization becomes insurmountable, whoever gets more immunized “wins” (moreover in a very precarious way). Be careful, however, because excess immunization leads to asphyxiation.

This asphyxiation is the absence of politics. If there is no politics in authoritarian and totalitarian regimes, liberal democracies have the responsibility to invest in dialogue as a political fact, passing through healthy self-criticism. If we look realistically at our democracies, mediation has been forgotten. This, from the point of view of complex reflection, is a first problem to deal with. We have denied social conflict by seeking compromises that have led us to a dead end road. Thus democracies do not carry within themselves the breath of history but are forced to defend themselves and to build walls: the double dynamic (not politically governed) of growing internal inequalities and of the power of global flows risks being fatal.

We continue to reflect on political dialogue …

Riflessioni collegate

FROM GLOBAL THINK TANKS – DAILY NEWSLETTER

with The Science of Where Magazine

Around the world: Africa; China; Europe; India; Japan; Japan-Indo Pacific; Russia; Russia-Turkey; Russia-Ukraine (on the ground-impact); USA; USA-Israel-Middle East

Topics: Climate Change & Sustainability;  Counter terrorism-Defense-Intelligence-Military-Security-Space; Cybersecurity; Digital & Tech; Health & Digital

AROUND THE WORLD

Africa

China

Europe

  • August 3, 2022. Oya CelasunDora Iakova and Ian Parry, IMF blog. Soaring energy prices have sharply increased living costs for Europeans. Since early last year, global oil prices doubled, coal prices nearly quadrupled and European natural gas prices increased almost seven-fold. With energy prices likely to remain above pre-crisis levels for some time, Europe must adapt to higher import bills for fossil fuels. How Europe Can Protect the Poor from Surging Energy Prices

India

  • August 2, 2022. Xinyu WengNadeem Karmali, World Bank blogs. Data-driven housing studies in the developed world have shown that regulations and geography have played a part in reducing the supply of housing in many cities. As a result, new housing construction has been muted by these factors, despite house price appreciation. In turn, some policymakers are exploring adjustments to housing density regulations to increase housing supply.  Housing demand in urban India: Through the (kitchen) roof

Japan

Japan – Indo Pacific

  • August 2, 2022. Mason Richey, Michael Reiterer, East Asia Forum. As a major regional power and key US ally, Japan has a special role in influencing security and economic outcomes in the Indo-Pacific region. To begin with, Japan’s position relies on Tokyo’s alliance with Washington, which stations 50,000 soldiers on Japanese territory and provides the archipelago with extended nuclear deterrence. The United States is also Japan’s second-largest trade partner and a partner in democratic values. Japan’s ability to promote a ‘free and open Indo-Pacific’ depends on the growth and adaptation of this alliance, as well as on cooperation with other partners.  Answering the bell — Japan’s Indo-Pacific leadership aspirations

Russia

  • August 2, 2022. Paul Globe, The Jamestown Foundation. Since 1991, when the Soviet Union disintegrated and Kaliningrad became an exclave separated from the Russian Federation by Poland and Lithuania, Moscow has been worried about two aspects: transportation links between Kaliningrad and Russia proper and changes in the Kaliningrad population’s attitudes because of their neighbors’ actions—which are leaving the populace less like their nominally Russian ethnic counterparts and potentially less loyal. The first has almost always attracted more attention, most recently when Lithuania imposed, and then lifted, a ban on the movement of EU sanctioned goods between Russia and Kaliningrad and when a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) exercise suggested that the West might seize Kaliningrad in a time of war (see EDM, October 12, 2021March 10). The second angle is at least as worrisome as the first, if less obvious, because it may represent a more serious long-term challenge to the Kremlin’s control in Kaliningrad and its ability to maintain the Russian nation’s unity more generally against regionalist sentiments. Moscow Fears ‘De-Russianization’ of Kaliningrad and Steps Up to Block It

Russia – Turkey

  • August 3, 2022. Ian Hill, The Interpreter. Ahead of this week’s meeting between presidents Vladimir Putin and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in Sochi, it’s worth trying to make sense of the important yet complex – and occasionally baffling – relationship between Russia and Turkey. The key to understanding this lies in their intertwined interests and aspirations in Eurasia.  Russia and Turkey: Sometimes strongmen need to get along

Russia – Ukraine (on the ground – impact)

  • August 2, 2022. Richard Arnold, The Jamestown Foundation. One of the seemingly forgotten but oft-victimized casualties of the Russo-Ukrainian war has been the Ahiska Turk minority residing in Ukraine and Russia alike. The Ahiskas, also known as Meskhetians, are one of the most persecuted minorities in history and were deported en masse by Joseph Stalin in 1944 from present-day Georgia to Uzbekistan. In 1989, they were the victims of pogroms from Uzbek nationalists and relocated throughout the Soviet Union. While in many regions of Russia their stay was tolerable, in southern Krasnodar Krai, the Ahiskas were denied residency rights (and thus access to social services) as well as being subject to periodic violence from Cossack militias (Richard Arnold, Russian Nationalism and Ethnic Violence: Symbolic Violence, Lynching, Pogrom, and Massacre, 2016). The persecution led, once again, to a deportation, this time to the United States under a 2004–2006 visa waiver program initiated by the US Department of State. One of the Ahiskas’ new homes became the city of Dayton, Ohio, where an Ahiska Turk cultural center now serves some 10,000 Ahiska refugees. And the war in Ukraine looks set to increase that number greatly. Caught in Conflict: Ahiska Turks and the Russo-Ukrainian War
  • August 2, 2022. Olevs Nikers, The Jamestown Foundation. Focused on substantial reinforcement of self-defense capabilities while the regional security situation deteriorates due to Russia’s re-invasion of Ukraine, Latvia is considering reinstating a  policy of compulsory military service, which is officially supported by the governing political parties (Lsm.lv, July 13). Compulsory military service already exists in the other two Baltic states, Estonia and Lithuania. Estonia has continued to maintain compulsory conscription even while developing a professional army. Latvia Contemplates Conscription in Face of Russian Aggression
  • August 2, 2022. Kateryna Stepanenko, Layne Philipson, Katherine Lawlor, Karolina Hird, and Frederick W. Kagan, ISW. Russian forces have likely decided to attack Avdiivka frontally from occupied Donetsk Oblast territory rather than waiting for Ukrainian forces to withdraw from their prepared defensive positions as a result of Russian envelopment operations northeast of the settlement.The Donetsk People’s Republic (DNR) and Kremlin-sponsored sources have published videos suggesting that Russian forces pushed Ukrainian forces out of their positions around the Butivka Coal Mine ventilation shaft southwest of Avdiivka. Ukrainian forces have held positions around the Butivka Coal Mine ventilation shaft since 2015 and have described the location as the closest Ukrainian position to Donetsk City and a key defensive outpost for Avdiivka. Russian forces have likely captured the Ukrainian position, given the Ukrainian General Staff‘s vague reports of ”partially” successful Russian advances in the area. Russian forces are also continuing assaults on Pisky, west of Avdiivka, and will likely attempt to seize the E50 highway connecting the two settlements. Russian forces had previously attempted to break through Avdiivka’s northeastern outskirts but have not made significant progress in months. Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, August 2
  • August 2, 2022. Elizabeth Sidiropoulos, Brookings. The war in Ukraine is often described by Western analysts as a turning point in international relations that has upended the post-Cold War international order. In the Global South, the war is equally historic, reinvigorating foreign policy autonomy and non-alignment as geopolitical tensions rise between the West and Russia (and China). How do Global South politics of non-alignment and solidarity explain South Africa’s position on Ukraine?

USA

USA – Israel – Middle East

TOPICS

Climate Change & Sustainability

Counter terrorism – Defense – Intelligence – Military – Security – Space

  • August 3, 2022. Robert Chesney, Lawfare. Early in the morning on Sunday this past weekend, Ayman al-Zawahiri stepped out onto a balcony of a home in Kabul. It was something he’d done many times before without apparent incident, but this time would be his last. U.S. personnel had identified him, and had a drone in place to take the shot. A manhunt that began immediately after 9/11 and lasted nearly 21 years was over at last. On the Legality of the Strike that Killed Anwar al-Zawahiri
  • August 3, 2022. Aaron Mehta, Theresa Hitchens, Breaking Defense. The Senate Appropriations Committee has joined a congressional chorus of concern over how the Pentagon is using a new acquisition authority designed to speed up procurement of cutting edge technologies. Citing routine cost jumps, Senate appropriators add to Middle Tier authority concerns
  • August 3, 2022. Caitlin M. Kenney, Defense One. Docked by the sunken wreckage of a 1909 dreadnought, two unusual vessels are helping the U.S. Navy navigate its way toward its future. The unmanned Nomad and Ranger, which resemble seagoing flatbed trucks loaded with conex containers, represented the debut of uncrewed surface vessels at the giant biannual Rim of the Pacific exercise. Robot Ships Debut at RIMPAC, Helping US Navy Sail Toward a Less-Crewed Future
  • August 3, 2022. Naval News. L3Harris Technologies, in collaboration with the U.S. Navy, demonstrates how unmanned surface vehicle technologies can provide critical support for traditional maritime forces during the 2022 Rim of the Pacific Exercise (RIMPAC 2022) – the world’s largest international maritime warfare exercise. The demonstration is being held June 29 through August 4, 2022, off the coast of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. L3Harris and US Navy Demonstrates AUSV Capabilities at RIMPAC 2022
  • August 3, 2022. Benjamin Felton, Naval News. The Kongsberg-Thales “StrikeMaster” is still the only confirmed competitor for the Australian Army’s land-based anti-ship missile project, Project Land 4100 Phase 2. Several potential competitors with a significant presence in the Australian market, contacted for comment by Naval News, declined to confirm if they will submit bids for the effort.  Is NSM a shoo-in for Australia’s Land Based Anti-Ship Missile?
  • August 3, 2022. Rachel S. Cohen, Defense News. NATO is building up its defenses in Eastern Europe to fend off Russian aggression in a new effort it calls “air shielding.”. NATO fortifies Eastern Europe’s defenses under new ‘air shielding’ mission
  • August 2, 2022. Meir Elran, Asa Kasher, INSS. “The Spirt of the IDF,” the IDF ethical code formulated twenty years ago, was updated recently with a new fundamental value: “stateliness” (mamlachtiyut, in Hebrew). What did Chief of Staff Kochavi intend with his addition of the term, and how can this value be best instilled among IDF soldiers and the general public? Stateliness, IDF style
  • August 2, 2022. Shimon Stein, Ephraim Asculai, INSS. The 10th Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference is underway in New York, against the background of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, in itself a gross violation of the treaty; Putin’s threat to resort to nuclear weapons; the deadlock in negotiations with Iran; and more. In these difficult circumstances, the participants will hopefully be able at the very least to issue a joint statement affirming the norms underlying the NPT. The Tenth NPT Review Conference: In the Shadow of Russian Aggression in Ukraine
  • July 29, 2022. Shin Kawashima, Think China. Japanese academic Shin Kawashima notes that concerns about Japan’s possible increased militarism amid constitutional revision may be misplaced. The debate in Japan is focused on making Japan’s Self-Defence Forces constitutional, and not so much altering Article 9 itself. If countries are concerned about Japan’s security moves, they should really be looking out for changes in documents such as the revised National Security Strategy to be launched at the end of the year. Japanese academic: Misunderstandings surrounding Japan’s constitutional revision, Politics News
  • August 3, 2022. , The Strategist. Australia’s recent change of government provides a useful opportunity to reflect on the problems of the South China Sea and the way ahead for our national policies. In a sense, the clear continuity between the approach of the last government and, so far, that of Labor confirms the need to consider matters both in their wider strategic context and for the long term. As a strategic problem, the South China Sea isn’t going to go away. Australia must speak carefully and carry a big enough stick in the South China Sea
  • August 3, 2022. , Project-Syndicate, The Strategist. US House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s arrival in Taiwan has incited a predictably strong response from China. Chinese warplanes have brushed up against the median line dividing the Taiwan Strait. The Chinese foreign ministry has warned of ‘serious consequences’ as a result of Pelosi’s visit to the island. Chinese President Xi Jinping has told US President Joe Biden that ‘those who play with fire will perish by it’. And now, China has announced a major military exercise with live-fire drills starting tomorrow (just after Pelosi leaves Taiwan). The spectre of military confrontation looms large. Pelosi’s visit and the coming Taiwan crisis
  • August 3, 2022. , The Strategist. America has killed al-Qaeda’s head, Ayman al-Zawahiri, who was living in a wealthy Kabul suburb under the noses of the Taliban leadership. Al-Zawahiri living and working in Afghanistan is an echo of the safe harbour the Taliban gave his former boss, Osama bin Laden, to plan and conduct the horrific September 11 attacks. That continued until the Taliban were ousted at the start of the 20-year Afghan war. So, there’s a symmetry to the Taliban again harbouring an al-Qaeda head while America hunts him. Zawahiri’s death: echoes of 9/11 and a demonstration of US resolve
  • August 2, 2022. Aaron Mehta, Breaking Defense. The US State Department today approved more than $5 billion in arms deals for key Middle East partners, including $3.05 billion in Patriot missiles for Saudi Arabia and $2.25 billion in THAAD systems for the United Arab Emirates. State Department approves $5 billion in missile defense for UAE, Saudi Arabia
  • August 2, 2022. Jaspreet Gill, Breaking Defense. As Congress works through the messy process of building next year’s Pentagon budget, there are concerns within the Army that cuts proposed by Senate appropriators to network and radio modernization upgrades will impact the service’s ability to field key components of its next capability set, an Army official told Breaking Defense.  In Army, worry follows Senators’ proposed cuts to network, comms upgrades: Official
  • August 2, 2022. Valerie Insinna, Breaking Defense. L3Harris has won the Armed Overwatch program and will build up to 75 AT-802U Sky Warden attack aircraft for US Special Operations Command. L3Harris Sky Warden attack plane wins SOCOM’s Armed Overwatch program
  • August 2, 2022. Justin Katz, Breaking Defense. The Navy’s engineers guiding the service’s future unmanned surface vessels say this year’s RIMPAC has shown that, unlike some in Washington, the fleet is less concerned about the autonomy software driving the new tech and focused more on what missions it can help sailors achieve. After RIMPAC, sailor feedback shows evolving view of unmanned vessels: Officials
  • August 2, 2022. Andrew Eversden, Breaking Defense. The Rafael-made Iron Dome system successfully defeated cruise missile and unmanned aerial system surrogates during a recent test with the US Army at White Sands Missile Range, the Israeli company announced today. US Army successfully tests Iron Dome at White Sands Missile Range
  • August 2, 2022. Breaking Defense. China has never been shy about using economic ties to try and reach geostrategic goals, and for many years it found a willing partner in the nations of Europe. But in 2022 that ground has shifted, and skepticism in Europe towards Beijing is now growing. Nathan Picarsic and Emily de La Bruyere, senior fellows at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, argue below that now is the time for the US and Europe to come together for an industrial/geopolitical strategy of their own for dealing with China. It’s time for a US-EU industrial strategy on China – even if it costs industry
  • August 2, 2022. Jaspreet Gill, Breaking Defense. The United States is at a “relative disadvantage” in the field of biotechnology compared to adversaries like China and risks “ceding American leadership over one of the most powerful and transformative fields of technology in recent memory,” according to a new report from the Center for a New American Security.  US at ‘relative disadvantage’ in biotech compared to China, report finds
  • August 2, 2022. Marcus Weisgerber, Defense One. The Biden administration has approved more than $5 billion in arms deals that would send missile interceptors to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Just Weeks After Saudi Trip, Biden Administration Greenlights $5B in Arms for Gulf Nations
  • August 2, 2022. Jacqueline Feldscher, Defense One. For decades, Republicans have positioned themselves as staunch supporters of the military, but last week’s vote to stall benefits for veterans exposed to burn pits has given some Democrats a political opening ahead of the November midterms to paint their opponents as un-American officials who refuse to support those they sent to fight.  Dems Using Burn-Pit Vote To Target GOP Opponents in Midterms
  • August 2, 2022. Marcus Weisgerber, Defense One. Defense giant Lockheed Martin doubled its venture capital fund from $200 million to $400 million as it looks to increase investments in startups. Lockheed Martin Doubles Ventures Fund as It Hunts for Future Tech Startups
  • August 2, 2022. Haroro J. Ingram, Andrew Mines and Daniel Milton, Defense One. Ayman al-Zawahri was an Egyptian-born jihadist who became al-Qaida’s top leader in 2011 after his predecessor, Osama bin Laden, was killed by a U.S. operation. Al-Zawahri’s ascent followed years in which al-Qaida’s leadership had been devastated by U.S. drone strikes in Pakistan. Bin Laden had himself been struggling in the years leading up to his death to exert control and unity across al-Qaida’s global network of affiliates.  Where Does al-Zawahri’s Death Leave al-Qaida?
  • August 2, 2022. Naval News. The Chief Executive Officer of Brahmos Aerospace company, Atul Rane, told Russian TASS agency that the hypersonic version of the BrahMos cruise missile, the BrahMos-II, may include technology from Russia’s Tsirkon hypersonic missile. Hypersonic BrahMos-II missile may include tech from Tsirkon missile
  • August 3, 2022. Zamone Perez, Defense News. The U.S. State Department on Tuesday cleared possible foreign military sales to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, according to a statement from the Defense Security Cooperation Agency. State Department clears weapons sales to Saudi Arabia, UAE
  • August 2, 2022. Stephen Losey, Defense News. U.S. Special Operations Command’s new Armed Overwatch aircraft will be able to carry multiple weapons configurations and modular sensors that can be quickly swapped out as well as be disassembled for deployment within hours. How L3Harris created US special operators’ new plane to hunt and strike terrorists
  • August 2, 2022. Seth J. Frantzman, Defense News. The U.S. Army has completed an interceptor test of the Iron Dome air defense system, the second event of its kind since two batteries were supplied to the service at the end of 2020. Iron Dome intercepts targets, works with US systems in Army test
  • August 2, 2022.
  • August 2, 2022. Courtney Albon, Defense News. Lockheed Martin plans to launch a three-satellite testbed next year to demonstrate space-enabled joint all-domain operations. Lockheed to launch space-based testbed for joint all-domain operations
  • August 2, 2022.
  • August 2, 2022. William Reinsch, Emily Benson, Aidan Arasasingham, CSIS. Technological innovation has been a driving force for U.S. global leadership and economic prosperity for over a century. This legacy of innovation largely stands on the foundation of a key component: semiconductor chips, found today in almost all electronic products. Semiconductors are an integral component of various consumer products across industries, including cars, smartphones, and household appliances. But semiconductors can also be used in dual-use goods—products that have both military and civilian applications—such as air guidance systems for both civilian and military aircraft. The tension between economic gain and security risk inherent within dual-use semiconductor goods is heightened in fields with national security implications, such as supercomputing and artificial intelligence (AI). How the government and private sector manage the global value chains (GVCs) of chips will directly affect U.S. global competitiveness and national security going forward. Given the evolving security relationship between the United States, the Quad, and the European Union, this paper focuses on both Quad and EU countries and the possibilities for friend-shoring in both. It assesses how the EU and U.S. governments can collaborate to avoid duplicative policies that fail to enhance the overall resiliency of transatlantic semiconductor supply chains. Securing Semiconductor Supply Chains: An Affirmative Agenda for International Cooperation
  • August 2, 2022. Vanda Felbab-Brown, Brookings. The successful U.S. hit against Ayman al-Zawahri, the post-Osama bin Laden leader of al-Qaida, is a great moment of justice: Zawahri had been a key plotter of 9/11 and other vicious terrorist attacks. Although in recent years he has not been involved in daily tactical al-Qaida planning, his death will have a negative strategic and demoralizing impact on al-Qaida. Al-Qaida will not stop existing and operating, but it has again been put on the back foot. What Ayman al-Zawahri’s death says about terrorism in Taliban-run Afghanistan

Cybersecurity

Digital & Tech

  • August 3, 2022. , The Strategist. Innovation in northern Australia is thriving. It’s not clear why, but there’s no doubt that northern Australians are seizing the opportunity to pursue innovative projects that generate economic benefits, contribute to national resilience and respond to defence needs. Industry 4.0 driving sovereign capability in northern Australia
  • August 2, 2022. Mark Muro, Brookings. The CHIPS and Science Act—the sprawling technology package Congress passed last week—has been called many things.  What started as the Endless Frontier Act became the U.S. Innovation and Competition Act, then the COMPETES Act, the Bipartisan Innovation Act, CHIPS-Plus, and finally, the CHIPS and Science Act. Can the CHIPS Act heal the nation’s economic divides?
  • August 2, 2022. George Ingram, Brookings. The effectiveness of development co-operation has been front and center of the global development agenda for two decades, notably growing in attention and commitment following the adoption of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness in 2005. The idea of aid effectiveness is based on the premise of “why provide/why receive” development assistance if it does not advance development.The threat of setback to development from the tsunami of COVID, climate change, refugee crisis, rising food prices and shortages, and the war in Ukraine, makes even more urgent achieving the most out of scarce development resources. Scale & digital public goods: Realizing the effectiveness principles for longer-term development

Health & Digital