ISRAEL – Rising Temperatures, Rising Risks: Climate Change and Israel’s National Security (Shira Efron, INSS)

The Middle East is one of the regions most vulnerable to climate change, including rising temperatures, water and consequently food shortages, rising sea levels, and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. These changes could aggravate regional instability, lead to mass migration of refugees, and create comfortable conditions for terrorist organizations. Beyond the effects on regional geopolitical stability, which could become a security challenge for Israel, climate change also has direct implications for infrastructure, equipment, and defense and weapon systems, as well as the health and level of preparedness of military and security personnel. To address the ramifications of climate change for its national security, Israel must integrate the topic into its core national security agenda and discourse, including by facilitating a dialogue between climate and security experts; integrating climate effects into risk scenarios; and accounting for climatic effects in budgets and planning.