(Russia) GLONASS Program for 2021–2030 (Pavel Luzin, The Jamestown Foundation)

In January, Russia started a new federal ten-year program for developing a GLONASS dual-use satellite navigation system. Its main goal, and challenge, is to replace the old generation of satellites with new ones and increase the system’s reliability and preciseness to make it comparable with the American GPS and the European Galileo systems. The work was supposed to be done by 2020 but was postponed for the next decade due to the lack of technologies and industrial capabilities.