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Hybrid Work – Post-pandemic: why a hybrid working model may be most effective (Nicholas Bloom, Paul Mizen, Shivani Taneja, VoxEU, WEF)

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted a collective shift to working from home, with a number of employees still anxious about returning to the office. New evidence from a survey of 2,500 employees in the UK shows a preference in favour of home working 2-3 days a week. It’s suggested a hybrid workforce could be the answer, […]

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Brazil – Earnings inequality and dynamics in the presence of informality: The case of Brazil (Niklas Engbom, Gustavo Gonzaga, Christian Moser, Roberta Olivieri, VOXEU)

Figure 1 Evolution of percentiles (left) and dispersion (right) of the log earnings distribution from 1985-2017 – Source: RAIS, 1985-2017. Earnings inequality and dynamics in the presence of informality | VOX, CEPR Policy Portal (voxeu.org)

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Europe – Sticky floors or glass ceilings? The role of human capital, working time flexibility and discrimination in the gender wage gap (VOXEU)

Gabriele Ciminelli, Cyrille Schwellnus Despite progress in recent decades, women in Europe still earn roughly 15% less per hour than similarly qualified men. This column uses individual-level data to analyse the drivers of gender wage gaps and finds that in Northern and Western Europe the gap is largely a consequence of childbirth (a ‘glass ceiling’), […]

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UK – Brexit deterred international students from applying to UK universities (VOXEU)

Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes, Agnese Romiti Attracting international students is critical for public universities in the UK increasingly facing funding cuts and a diminishing domestic youth population. This column discusses how Brexit may have affected students’ willingness to study in the UK and the factors likely driving the students’ choices. Brexit significantly lowered applications from EU students, especially […]

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The government as an (effective) venture capitalist (VOXEU)

Jessica Bai, Shai Bernstein, Abhishek Dev, Josh Lerner Government funding to boost innovation has seen an uplift since the unfolding of the COVID crisis. Using extensive global data, this column examines how government funding programmes focused on early-stage companies interact with private capital markets, and finds a positive relationship between government funding at this business […]

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UK/Europe – Free trade agreements do not always ensure free trade (VOXEU)

Jan I. Haaland, Ian Wooton The changes in the UK’s trading relationship with the EU are likely to have widespread effects, many of which are yet to be understood in full. This column introduces the issue of compliance with rules of origin requirements within free trade agreements. The authors argue that complying with these rules […]

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Gender role norms and mothers’ labour supply (VOXEU)

Danilo Cavapozzi, Marco Francesconi, Cheti Nicoletti Despite a significant reduction in gender differences in the labour market over the last 40 years, they are still present in most advanced economies and do not appear likely to vanish soon. This column analyses the impact of culture, defined by women’s gender role attitudes, on maternal labour market decisions. It […]

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Cooperation among people with different cognitive skill levels (VOXEU)

Eugenio Proto, Aldo Rustichini, Andis Sofianos A large part of social interaction occurs among very different individuals. Characteristics such as trust, altruism, and intelligence can have important effects on strategic behaviour. This column studies how interactions between groups with different cognitive skill levels affect cooperation. Using an indefinitely repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game, it finds that […]

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Central banks in a shifting world: Selected takeaways from the ECB’s online Sintra Forum (VOXEU)

Philipp Hartmann, Glenn Schepens The 2020 ECB Forum on Central Banking addressed some key issues from the ongoing monetary policy strategy review and embedded them in discussions of major structural changes in advanced economies and the post-COVID recovery. In this column, two of the organisers highlight some of the main points from the papers and […]

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Pandemic divergence: The social and economic costs of Covid-19 (VOXEU)

Eduardo Levy Yeyati, Federico Filippini The long-term social and economic consequences of Covid-19 are uncertain. This column provides a preliminary assessment of the variation in costs across countries and regions, and suggests that developing economies will suffer the most lasting damage. The pandemic has exposed the differential capacity of governments to mitigate health and economic […]

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Central bank communication: Remember who’s talking (VOXEU)

In Do Hwang, Thomas Lustenberger, Enzo Rossi Central bank communication has become an important policy tool over the past 20 years. This column uses survey data to show that business executives tend to associate a greater volume of speeches from the central bank with the central bank having less of an impact on the economy. […]

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Modern infectious diseases: Macroeconomic impacts and policy responses (VOXEU)

David Bloom, Michael Kuhn, Klaus Prettner In addition to the devastating human toll, the economic upheaval wrought by the COVID-19 pandemic illustrates the inextricable relationship between physical and economic health. This column presents an overview of the macroeconomic effects of the infectious disease epidemics of the 20th and early 21st centuries through the lens of recent COVID-19 […]