Previous Brookings research found that homes are undervalued in majority-Black neighborhoods, yet could not identify why. Recently, the Federal Housing Finance Agency released new neighborhood-level data on home appraisals. Using this data in combination with other sources, this report draws the following conclusions on home appraisal bias’s effect on housing markets in majority-Black neighborhoods:
We continue to find that homes in Black neighborhoods are valued roughly 21% to 23% below what their valuations would be in non-Black neighborhoods. Neighborhoods with a majority of Latino or Hispanic, Asian American, or white residents do not experience home price devaluation, using the same model. Appraisal bias explains a fraction of the devaluation of homes in Black neighborhoods: approximately 9% to 19%, depending on modeling approaches. The vast majority of homes in majority-Black neighborhoods and throughout the country are appraised at or above their contract price, leaving much of the variance unaccounted for. The cost of devaluation across the 113 metro areas in the U.S. with at least one majority-Black neighborhood is approximately $162 billion.